PNA(肽核酸) - 杭州泰禾生物技术有限公司-杭州泰禾生物技术有限公司
PNA(肽核酸)是人工合成的聚合物,跟DNA,RNA一样,嘌呤和嘧啶连在碳骨架上,而碳骨架跟多肽一样,是通过酰胺键连起来的。由于PNA没有带电荷的磷酸基团,因此不存在静电排斥。这使得PNA跟DNA结合比DNA与DNA之间的结合更加牢固。PNA既不是多肽,也不是核酸,因此DNA酶跟蛋白酶都不能水解PNA,无论在体外或者体内,PNA都相当稳定。 跟DNA、RNA相比,PNA有2个最重要的特点是: 1)跟对应的核酸结合,Tm值高,稳定性强。 2)跟对应核酸序列结合,特异性非常高:完全配对时,Tm值比对应的DNA-DNA高;如果有一个碱基不配对,Tm值会下降15℃左右,比对应的DNA-DNA Tm值低;如果有2个碱基不配对,完全不能结合。 基于以上不同于DNA、RNA的特性,PNA 为生命科学的研究及药物开发提供了新的思路。
PNA结构:

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PNA运用:
1. PNA钳 (PNA clamp),特异序列阻断剂(Sequence specific PCR blocker)。 2. 荧光原位杂交的探针(FISH probes):针对端粒,着丝点,对应的基因,感染基因的检测。 3. Anti-sense/ anti-microbial reagents. 4. miRNA inhibitors. 5. Double strand DNA invasion capture. 6. Microarray probes.

FISH probes 1. Kentaro Taemura et al. 2005. Dynamic rearrangement of telomeres during spermatogenesis in mice. Developmental Biology 281, 196-207. 2. Won-Woo Lee et al. 2002. Age-related telomere length dynamics in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of healthy cynomolgus monkeys measured by Flow FISH. Immunology 105, 458-465. 3. Heather Perry. et al. 2001. Identification of indicator microorganisms using a standardized PNA FISH method. Journal of Microbiological Methods 47, 281-292. 4. Caifu Chen et al. 1999. Single base discrimination of CENP-B repeats on mouse and human chromosomes with PNA-FISH. Mammalian Genome 10, 13-18. 5. M. Hultdin et al. 1998. Telomere analysis by flourescence in situ Hybridization and flow cytometry. Nucleic Acids Research 26(16), 3651-3656. 6. Peter M. Landsdorp et al. 1996. Heterogeneity in telomere length of human chromosomes. Human Molecular Genetics 5(5), 685-691.
Bio-drugs for antigene and antisense therapy The strong binding and stability of PNA imply that a small quantity of PNA can be effective for therapeutic applications. Triplex invasion of a PNA shows good potential as antigene material in vivo as well as in vitro. 1. Jens Kurreck, 2003. Antisense technologies; Improvement through novel chemical modifications. Eur. J. Biochem. 270, 1628-1644. 2. Uffe Koppelhus et al. Cellular delivery of peptide nucleic acid (PNA). Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews 55, 267-280.
PNA probe for microarray 1. Liu ZC. et al. 2007. Light-directed synthesis of peptide nucleic acids (PNAs) chips. Biosensors and Bioelectronics 22, 2891-2897. 2. Raymond FR et al. 2005. Detection of target DNA using fluorescent cationic polymer and peptide nucleic acid probes on solid support. BMC Biotechnol. 5:10. 3. Brandt O. et al. 2003. PNA microarrays for hybridization of unlabelled DNA samples. Nucleic Acids Res. 31(19), e119. 4. Liu CG et al. 2004. An oligonucleotide microchip for genome-wide microRNA profiling in human and mouse tissues. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 101(26), 9740-9744.
PNA probe for nucleic acid biosensor 1. Wang J. et al. 1998. DNA biosensors based on Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) recognition layers.A review. Biosensors Bioelectronics 13, 757-762. 2. Ray A et al. 2000. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA): its medical and biotechnical applications and promise for the future. The FASEB Journal 14, 1041-1060. 3. Demidov V. et al. 2003. PNA and LNA throw light on DNA. Trends in Biotechnology 21(1), 4-7.
Northern and Southern blot 1. Nielsen PE et al. 1999. An introduction to peptide nucleic acid. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 1, 89-104. 2. Perry-O\'Keefe et al. 1996. Peptide nucleic acid pre-gel hybridization: an alternative to Southern hybridization. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93, 14670-14675. 3. Adriana Tovar-Salazar et al. 2007. Preparation of rADIoiodinated peptide nucleic acids with high specific activity. Analytical Biochemistry 360, 92-98.